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Hydraulic Formulas


The basic principle behind any hydraulic system is very simple - pressure applied anywhere to a body of fluid is transmitted equally in all directions, with the pressure acting at right angles to any surface in contact with the fluid (Pascal’s Law).


The amount of force a hydraulic cylinder can generate is equal to the hydraulic pressure times the effective area of the cylinder. (Effective Area is the surface area of the piston face in square inches.)


Effective Area of Piston = Diameter x Diameter x .78 = (answer in sq. in.)Force = psi x Area of Piston = (answer in pounds)

Pressure = Force in Pounds ÷ Area of Piston = (answer in psi)




  • Force = psi x Area of Piston
  • Effective Area = Diameter x .785
  • Pressure = Force / Area of Piston (answer in psi)
  • Displacement = Area of Piston x Stroke = (answer in Cubic Inches)





  Other Articles:  
  Basic Hydraulics At Work  
  Hydraulics is based on a very simple fact of nature - you cannot compress a liquid. Now if you put that liquid into a sealed system and push on it at one end, that pressure is transmitted through the liquid (confined/sealed vessel) to the other end of the system. The pressure is not diminished.  
  Hydraulic Principles  
  Pressure is stress that is exerted uniformly (or the same way) in all directions. Pressure is measured in units of force applied per unit of area.  
  Cylinder Terminology  
  Force exerted on a square inch of area of a confined liquid is transmitted at every angle to every square inch of area of the interior of the vessel.  
  Basic Physics  
  Basic physics tells us that we can trade off force for distance in all mechanical systems. In a hydraulic system, we do this by changing the relative size of the pistons at each end of the system. Click on the link above for complete details.  
  Hydraulic Formulas  
  The basic principle behind any hydraulic system is very simple Click on the link above for complete details.  
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